Abstract: On October 22, 2003, on the initiative of Romania?s president of the time, Ion Iliescu, an International Commission for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania (under the presidency of the Nobel laureate for peace, Elie Wiesel, American writer of Romanian origin) was set up. In the spring of 2006, on the initiative of Romania?s president, Traian Basescu, a Presidential Commission for the Analysis of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania (CPADCR, under the presidency of the American political scientist of Romanian origin, Vladimir Tismaneanu) was set up. The concrete purpose in setting up both Commissions was, in each case, the elaboration of a Final Report on the two forms of totalitarianism (extreme right and extreme left) that existed in Romania, between 1940 and 1944, and, respectively, between 1945 and 1989. Both Commissions had a legal and ethical basis and they answered to Romanians? expectations and dilemmas on their recent history.